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GPER Mediates Activation of HIF1a/VEGF Signaling by Estrogens

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and the leading cause of cancerrelated death in women worldwide (1). Although the molecular mechanisms involved in breast tumor development remain to be fully understood, it has been established that E2 triggers stimulatory effects by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER)a and ERb that regulate the expression of genes involved in cellcycle
progression, cell migration, and survival.

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